• V.I. Kyrychenko Khmelnytsky National University, Khmelnytsky
  • V.V. Kyrychenko Pyisell Ltd., Kyiv
  • V.P. Nezdorovin Khmelnytsky National University, Khmelnytsky
Keywords: physics and chemistry of hydrogen, production methods, metal hydrides, hydrogen transfer, safety, current sources, atomic hydrogen energy, concept, technologies


The review attempts to systematically and analytically consider certain results of scientific research and applied developments of such an urgent problem of our time as «hydrogen, hydrogen and atomic hydrogen energy» over the past 15–20 years. In the context of a reasoned statement of the problem, the main categorical-conceptual apparatus of the problem is determined. The main directions and issues of research on the phased solution of the problem are indicated. It is proved that the foundation of the problem is the understanding of the physicochemical properties of hydrogen as a chemical element and its characteristics as a simple substance based on a number of its specific properties. The phenomenon of hydrogen corrosion and its analysis from the point of view of the level of danger, the risk of its use and safety precautions are considered. Attention is focused on the features of the processes of storage, transportation and use of hydrogen as an energy carrier and raw material for technologies. The advantages of obtaining and using solid-phase hydrogen compounds with metals and intermetallic compounds as convenient and safe means of hydrogen transfer to consumers are noted. An example of the use of the most effective hydrides as carriers of H2 in motor vehicles by adding H2 to the minfuel in the engine power system is given, illustrated by a diagram. Special conditions for the use of H2 in heat supply processes (in thermal power engineering in general) are indicated, taking into account the difference in the thermophysical characteristics of H2, CH4, air and oxygen. The features of the development and use of means of transportation and storage of H2 are noted. Considerable attention is paid to the consideration of the physicochemical foundations for the production and use of metal hydrides and intermetallides in the context of evaluating them as means of solid-phase storage of H2 transfer in technological processes. The classification of hydrides and their functional characteristics of the most effective and promising hydrides — metal-like and especially intermetallic ones are presented: their preparation and areas of use. The innovative concept of atomic hydrogen energy is described in detail, which will determine the most promising areas of practical developments on the subject of the problem and their implementation. The concept is based on the use of the heat of a gas-cooled nuclear reactor for the implementation of two types of tasks: the efficient use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, for example, in the field of heat supply; the efficiency and profitability of methods for producing hydrogen using the numerous methods, methods and technologies already proposed, which, without nuclear technologies, are currently low-efficient and unprofitable. A project is proposed for using the heat of a GOx-th nuclear reactor in a fundamentally new complex of distant heat supply (method, technology, schemes) using a two-stage, reversible chemo-thermal process. It has been proven that the heat of a nuclear reactor can be used for the effective implementation of a number of traditional and innovative chemical and electrochemical, biochemical, etc. reactions for obtaining H2. A feasibility study has proven the effectiveness of such nuclear-hydrogen energy. A complete list and analysis of innovative, reversible (cyclic) chemical reactions for the production of H2 is presented. The review is based on the latest references to foreign publications on the subject of the problem (2018–2022), obtained from such an international source as «Elsevier-Science Direct». Bibl. 26, Fig. 4, Tab. 5.

Author Biographies

V.I. Kyrychenko, Khmelnytsky National University, Khmelnytsky

Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Candidate of Chemiecal Sciences, Professor

V.V. Kyrychenko, Pyisell Ltd., Kyiv

Candidate of Chemical Sciences

V.P. Nezdorovin, Khmelnytsky National University, Khmelnytsky

Candidate of Chemicals Sciences


Mitrova T., Melnikov Yu., Chugunok D. [Hydrogen economy as a way to low-carbon development]. Skolkovo : [Energy Center of the Moscow School of Management], 2019. 60 p. (Rus.)

Soroka B.S., Kornienko A.V. [Comparative energy-ecological analysis of the use of alternative gas fuels of various origins]. Alternativnaya Energetika i Ecologiya. 2012. No. 7. pp. 105–113. (Rus.)

Karp I.M. [Voden: Power, virility and peculiarity victoria]. Energotechnologii ta Resursozberezhennya. [Energy Technologies and Resource Saving]. 2020. No. 2. pp. 4–12. (Ukr.)

Chemicheskaya encyclopediya. Moscow : Sovietskaya encyclopedia, 1990. Vol. 1. pp. 400–557 (775–1090); Vol. 2. pp. 243–247 (478–486). (Rus.)

Smityaz K.J. [Metals]. : Translation from English. Moscow :Mir, 1980. 480 p. (Rus.)

[Water conduit in metals]. : Translation from English. Moscow : Mir, 1981. Vol. 2. 425 p. (Rus.)

Shpilrain E.E., Malyshenko S.P., Kuleshov G.G. [Introduction to hydrogen energy]. Ed. acad. V.A. Legasov. Moscow : Khemiya, 1985. 327 p. (Rus.)

Mc Akliffe Ch.A. Hydrogen and energy. Leningrad, 1980. 420 p.

Legasov V.A. In: [Atomic-hydrogen energy and technology]. Moscow, 1978–1979. Iss. 1 and Iss. 2. (Rus.)

Pukhliy V.A., Miroshnichenko S.T., and Sofiyskiy I.Yu. [Far nuclear heat supply of the regions of Ukraine]. Energotechnologii i Resursozberezheniye. [Energy Technologies and Resource Saving]. 2008. No. 5. pp. 16–20. (Rus.)

[Voden near the crystals] / Ed. Z.A. Matisina. Kiev : KIM, 2017. 1060 p. (Ukr.)

Gultekin Akay R., Bayrakceken Yurtcan A. Direct Liquid Fuel Cells: Fundamentals, Advances and Futur. World-alle lanquaqes, 2020. 328 pp.

Basile Anqelo, Gallucci Fausto. Sustainable Hydrogen Energy Technologies. Hydrogen Energy. 2022. 47 (03). Iss. 21. pp. 11101–11440.

Bicer Jusuf, Khalid Farrukh. Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cells. Hydrogen Energy. 2022. 47 (01). Iss. 5. pp. 2771–3514.

Ozkaya Bestami, Koroglu Emre Oguz. Green Hydrogen for Global Decarbonization. Hydrogen Energy. 2022. 47 (04). pp. 15133–15556.

Hydrogen Supply Chains: Design, Deployment and Operation. Edited by Catherine Azzaro-Pantel Imprint Academic Press, 2018. pp. 564.

Hydrogen Economy: Supple Chain, Life Cycle Analysis and Energy Transition for Sustainability. Edited by Scipioni A., Manzardo A. and Ren J., Imprint Academic Press, 2017. P. 315.

Science and Engineering of Hydrogen — Based Energy Technologies: Hydrogen Production and Practical Applications in Energy Generation. Edited by Paulo Emilio V. de Miranda, Imprint Academic Press, 2018. P. 420. —

Dagdougui Hanane, Sacile Roberto, Ouammi Ahmed. Hydrogen Infrastructure for Energy Applications: Production, Storage, Distribution and Safety. Imprint Academic Press, 2018. P. 156. —

Zhao Youcai, Zhou Tao. Biohydrogen Production and Hybrid Process Development: Energy and Resource Recovery from Food Waste. Imprint Elsevier, 2020. P. 543. —

Biohydrogen: A volum in Biomass, Biofuels, Biochemicals. Editied Tdited by Ashok Pandey, S. Venkata Mohan, Chistian Larrocht. Imprint Elsevier, 2019. P. 525/ —

Kotchourko A., Jordan T. Hydrogen Safety for Energy Applications: Engineering Design, Risk Assessement, and Codes and Standards. Imprint Butterworth-Heinemann, 2022. P. 405. —

Dincer I., Ishag H. Renewable Hydrogen Production. Imprint Elsevier, 2021. P. 364. —

Portable Hydrogen Energy Systems: Fuel Cells and Storage Fundamentals and Applications. Editors: Ferreira- Aparicio P., Chaparro A.M. Imprint Academic Press, 2019. P. 225. —

Bent Sorensen, Giuseppe Spazzafumo. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells: Emerging Technologies and Applications. Trind Edition Imprint Academic Press, 2018. P. 501. —

Zhiwen Ma, Patrick Davenport, Genevieve Saur. System and techno-economic analysis of solar thermochemical hygrogen production. Renewable Energy. 2022. Vol. 190. P. 294–308. —

How to Cite