THE PROBLEM OF HYDROGEN, HYDROGEN AND ATOMIC-HYDROGEN ENERGY: PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS, TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS (REVIEW)
The review attempts to systematically and analytically consider certain results of scientific research and applied developments of such an urgent problem of our time as «hydrogen, hydrogen and atomic hydrogen energy» over the past 15–20 years. In the context of a reasoned statement of the problem, the main categorical-conceptual apparatus of the problem is determined. The main directions and issues of research on the phased solution of the problem are indicated. It is proved that the foundation of the problem is the understanding of the physicochemical properties of hydrogen as a chemical element and its characteristics as a simple substance based on a number of its specific properties. The phenomenon of hydrogen corrosion and its analysis from the point of view of the level of danger, the risk of its use and safety precautions are considered. Attention is focused on the features of the processes of storage, transportation and use of hydrogen as an energy carrier and raw material for technologies. The advantages of obtaining and using solid-phase hydrogen compounds with metals and intermetallic compounds as convenient and safe means of hydrogen transfer to consumers are noted. An example of the use of the most effective hydrides as carriers of H2 in motor vehicles by adding H2 to the minfuel in the engine power system is given, illustrated by a diagram. Special conditions for the use of H2 in heat supply processes (in thermal power engineering in general) are indicated, taking into account the difference in the thermophysical characteristics of H2, CH4, air and oxygen. The features of the development and use of means of transportation and storage of H2 are noted. Considerable attention is paid to the consideration of the physicochemical foundations for the production and use of metal hydrides and intermetallides in the context of evaluating them as means of solid-phase storage of H2 transfer in technological processes. The classification of hydrides and their functional characteristics of the most effective and promising hydrides — metal-like and especially intermetallic ones are presented: their preparation and areas of use. The innovative concept of atomic hydrogen energy is described in detail, which will determine the most promising areas of practical developments on the subject of the problem and their implementation. The concept is based on the use of the heat of a gas-cooled nuclear reactor for the implementation of two types of tasks: the efficient use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, for example, in the field of heat supply; the efficiency and profitability of methods for producing hydrogen using the numerous methods, methods and technologies already proposed, which, without nuclear technologies, are currently low-efficient and unprofitable. A project is proposed for using the heat of a GOx-th nuclear reactor in a fundamentally new complex of distant heat supply (method, technology, schemes) using a two-stage, reversible chemo-thermal process. It has been proven that the heat of a nuclear reactor can be used for the effective implementation of a number of traditional and innovative chemical and electrochemical, biochemical, etc. reactions for obtaining H2. A feasibility study has proven the effectiveness of such nuclear-hydrogen energy. A complete list and analysis of innovative, reversible (cyclic) chemical reactions for the production of H2 is presented. The review is based on the latest references to foreign publications on the subject of the problem (2018–2022), obtained from such an international source as «Elsevier-Science Direct». Bibl. 26, Fig. 4, Tab. 5.
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