ACETOLYSIS OF TECHNICAL OILS AS A BASIS FOR THEIR COMPLEX PROCESSING INTO ALTERNATIVE ONESBIOPRODUCTS OF THE FUEL AND LUBRICANTS INDUSTRY: AN INNOVATIVE METHOD AND TECHNOLOGY
The material of the article reflects the results of the next stage of the systematic study of a very important problem in finding effective methods for processing chemical (T) oils into alternative functionally high quality and high biodegradability bioproducts of the fuel and lubricants (PM) materials. The main object of experimental research is the method of acetolysis of oils as one of the practically unexplored methods in comparison with well-developed methods of alcoholysis and esterolysis of T-oils. Based on the considered mechanism of catalytic and reversible reaction of acetolysis of oils as specific preacylation of their triacetylglycerol molecules, chemical-technological bases of processes of acetolysis of oils of two types are developed, namely: basic – rapeseed (g) and composition on its basis with 20 %, castor oil the so-called "ripritsol-20" (years). The optimal technological parameters for achieving high efficiency of acetolysis processes to obtain high-quality intermediates - mixtures of the corresponding FFAs of the general formulas RрC(O)–OH or RррC(O)–OH have been established. The necessity of combining the process of acetolysis of oils (p) or (pp) as the basis of the first stage of processing technology with the next stage, namely the conversion of VJ acids into more active in the reactions of the next stage derivatives - acid chlorides, and by a known, simple and fast method almost quantitative yield of intermediate products - mixtures of HlAn-VZhK (r) or (rr). The conceptual idea of the complex technology indicates the directions of rational processing of mixtures of VZ acids and their anhydrides (mixtures of HlAn-VZhK) into biocomponents of a wide range of purposes. In the second stage of the complex process, it is proposed to process Hlan-IJK mixtures into main bioproducts - biofuels or basic bio-oils by the well-known technologically and perfect Schotten-Bauman method, which is based on the acylation reaction of alcohols of the appropriate structure with chlorides of a certain type. or HlAn-VZhK (pp). Emphasis is placed on the rather favorable course of the acylation reaction of alcohols by the chosen method, in particular on its irreversibility, high speed under standard conditions, under such conditions high technical and economic efficiency of the second stage technology of the complex process is provided. It is shown that the technological operations of the complex process can be modified, directing them to the production of certain bioproducts, such as biofuels or biooils on the basis of adapted selection of the necessary combinations of raw materials. Thus, new biofuels of ester structure are proposed to be obtained by acylation of methanol or ethanol with mixtures of VOR acid chlorides derived from ripol. While new basic biooils of diester structure are recommended to be obtained by acylation of glycolysis of industrial production (in particular ethylene glycol) with a mixture of HlAn-VZhK, derived from the composite oil ripritsol-20. The presented tables of the calculated material balances of each of the stages of the complex process characterize their technical and economic efficiency and environmental safety. The main functional properties and some operational indicators of the experimental samples of products obtained during the research are determined: both biofuels and basic biooils, and composite ones based on the best mineral and bioproducts, in particular biodiesel and motor min-biooils. The analysis of their characteristics convinces that they do not concede on the functional indicators of quality to the best traditional materials of branch of PM-materials. Bibl. 12, Tab. 5.
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