ALTERNATIVE FUELS FROM TECHNICAL OILS: INNOVATIVE METHODS AND TECHNOLOGIES OF OBTAINING AND USING
The chemical aspects of increasing the efficiency of processing rape or soy-gm oils (oils in general) into biofuel by two methods are considered. These methods involve: traditional alcoholysis by methanol or ethanol and a new method — esterolysis which is based on reesterification reaction of ester oils mollecules by indusrially produced non-oil esters. The comparison of chemical-technological foundations of oils processing by traditional etanolysis and esterolysis by ethyl-acetate revealed that both technologies demonstrate unsatisfactory indicators of their efficiency, in particular temperature regime, selectiveness in relation to biofuels, output, quality and others, despite certain advantages of esterolysis. It is determined that overcoming the major reasons and consequences of low efficiency of these two methods is possible with the help of the innovative two-stage approach to the realization of technologies of ethanolysis and esterolysis. The chemical-technological principles of each stage of the two-stage processes have been developed, and the conditions of their procedure have been optimized. At the first stage, the alcoholysis of oils by glycerine, the so-called glycerolysis-2, is carried out, with the aim of changing triacyl-glycerine oils molecules into monoacyl-glycerine molecules. The second stage includes ethanolysis or esterolysis of monoacyl-glycerine molecules. The comparative analysis of the given material balances of technologies for one-stage and two-stage types of ethanolysis and esterolysis demonstrated a considerable increase of efficiency, mainly selectiveness, output and quality of biofuel. A new technique of optimizing the temperature regime of technologies for processing oils into biofuels is suggested. It is shown that the biofuel obtained with the help of two-stage ethanolysis is of better quality. It is confirmed that the most rational direction of using biofuel is the formation of composite diesel fuel. Ref. 12, Tab. 4.
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