HYDROGEN: PROPERTIES, PRODUCTION AND USES
Electrolysis of water uses more energy to produce «green» hydrogen than can be obtained by using it. On 1 m3 of electrolytic hydrogen consumes from 4 to 5 kW·h of electricity, while it contains chemical energy of 3.0 kW·h. The calorific value of hydrogen is 3.3 times less than methane. Hydrogen dissolves in metals, causing their corrosion. Its transportation requires special materials for pipelines, as well as special design, compressors and control devices. Owing to wide borders of explosiveness, high speed of torch spreading its use is connected with risks and demands special safety measures. The use of hydrogen as a fuel for driving shunting capacities in the energy system of Ukraine or for substitution of liquid motor fuels requires for its production the amount of energy commensurate with the volume of its total consumption in Ukraine, significant amounts of water and solution of the problem of using surplus oxygen. Taking into account the cost of electricity from renewable energy sources in Ukraine, the economy of hydrogen production and its use is beyond reasonable limits. Transportation of hydrogen in compressed or liquefied state is energy and economically expensive. Mixtures of natural gas and hydrogen are allowed to be transported and used. The driver of hydrogen energy is the prevention of anthropogenic impacts on climate change, which in itself is problematic. The large number of projects on the hydrogen economy that have been introduced today in Europe and around the world can be explained by the significant funds allocated to the problem, in which major companies and scientists — hydrogen activists are interested. Bibl.16, Table 1.
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