HYDROGEN: PROPERTIES, PRODUCTION AND USES

Keywords: hydrogen, production, transportation, storage, economic viability, problematicness

Abstract

Electrolysis of water uses more energy to produce «green» hydrogen than can be obtained by using it. On 1 m3 of electrolytic hydrogen consumes from 4 to 5 kW·h of electricity, while it contains chemical energy of 3.0 kW·h. The calorific value of hydrogen is 3.3 times less than methane. Hydrogen dissolves in metals, causing their corrosion. Its transportation requires special materials for pipelines, as well as special design, compressors and control devices. Owing to wide borders of explosiveness, high speed of torch spreading its use is connected with risks and demands special safety measures. The use of hydrogen as a fuel for driving shunting capacities in the energy system of Ukraine or for substitution of liquid motor fuels requires for its production the amount of energy commensurate with the volume of its total consumption in Ukraine, significant amounts of water and solution of the problem of using surplus oxygen. Taking into account the cost of electricity from renewable energy sources in Ukraine, the economy of hydrogen production and its use is beyond reasonable limits. Transportation of hydrogen in compressed or liquefied state is energy and economically expensive. Mixtures of natural gas and hydrogen are allowed to be transported and used. The driver of hydrogen energy is the prevention of anthropogenic impacts on climate change, which in itself is problematic. The large number of projects on the hydrogen economy that have been introduced today in Europe and around the world can be explained by the significant funds allocated to the problem, in which major companies and scientists — hydrogen activists are interested. Bibl.16, Table 1.

Author Biography

I.M. Karp, The Gas Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv

Academician of NAS of Ukraine, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor

References

Mytrova T., Melnikov Y., Chugunov D. [The hydrogen economy is the way to low-carbon development]. [Center for Energy of the Moscow School of Management Skolkovo]. June 2019. 60 pp. (Rus.).

Varnats Y., Maas U., Dybbl R. [Burning. Physical and chemical aspects, modelling, experiments, formation of pollutants]. Moscow : Fizmatlit, 2003. 301 pp.(Rus.)

Soroka B.S., Korniienko A.V. [Comparative Energy-Ecological Analysis of Alternative Gas Fuels of Various Origin]. Alternativnaya Enerhetyka i Ecologiya. [Alternative Energy and Ecology]. 2012. No. 7. pp. 105–113. (Rus.)

Aslanyan G.S., Reutov B.V. [Problematicity of hydrogen energy formation]. Teploenerhetyka. [Thermal power engineering]. 2006. No. 4. pp. 66–73. (Rus.)

Japan has launched one of the world’s largest stations for the production of hydrogen. — https://biz.censor.net.ua/news/3181083/ 12.03.2020. (Rus.)

Challenges for Japan’s Energy Transition. Basic Hydrogen Strategy. Agency for Natural Resources and Energy (ANRE), Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). Oct. 2018, Japan. 2018. 120 pp.

Kyrylenko O.V. [Intelectual Electrical Networks: Elements and modes]. Kyiv : Institute of Electrical Dynamics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2016. 400 pp. (Ukr.)

[Report on conformity assessment (adequacy) of generating capacity]. Kyiv : Ukrenergo, 2019. 68 p. (Ukr.).

Tommy I. HyDeploy: The UK’s First Hydrogen Blending Deployment Project. Clean Energy, 2019, Vol. 3, Iss. 2, pp. 114–125. — https://doi.org/10.1093/ce/zkz006.

Eckert V., Revill J. Powered by hydrogen, Hyun- dai’s trucks aim to conquer the Swiss Alps. — https://biz.censor.net.ua/n3187934 09.04.20.

[Why is the world switching to hydrogen transport and where it works?] — https://biz.censor.net.ua/r3184189/ (Rus.)

Armaroli N., Balzani V. The Hydrogen Issue (Review). ChemSusChem. 2011. No. 4. pр. 21–36. https://doi.org/10.1002/cssc.201000182/

Shentsov V. Introduction to hydrogen safety e-laboratory and education. Presentation at Naftogas of Ukraine. October 31, 2019. 62 pp. (ulster.ac.uk).

Karp I. [Who controls the climate?]. Zerkalo nedeli. 2019. 27 June. No 25. (Rus.)

Latynyna Y. [The Church of Global Warming]. Novaya gazeta. [New newspaper]. 30.11.2019. (novayagazeta.ru 2019/11/30). (Rus.)

Global coal capacity is booming thanks to China and Japan. PEI. March 27, 2020. p. 2.

Published
2020-06-20
How to Cite
Karp, I. (2020). HYDROGEN: PROPERTIES, PRODUCTION AND USES. Energy Technologies & Resource Saving, (2), 4-13. https://doi.org/10.33070/etars.2.2020.01